Keith E Rice's Integrated SocioPsychology Blog & Pages

Aligning, integrating and applying the behavioural sciences

Erik Erikson’

Graves: Systems more than Stages

30 August 2020 Historically Psychology is full of stage theories. From Sigmund Freud’s (1905) Psychosexual Stages, through Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages, Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development, Abraham Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs, Lawrence Kohlberg’s (1958) Stages of Moral Development, Jane Loevinger’s (1976) Stages of Ego Development to Michael Commons et al’s (1998) Model of Hierarchical Complexity, etc, etc, etc. Sociology has a fair few stage theories too – such as Max Weber’s (1922) Social Action Theory and Theodore Adorno et al’s (1950) Types of Prejudiced & Unprejudiced Persons. A stage is a period in development – often, but not always, related to age – in which people exhibit behaviour patterns and establish particular capacities typical to that particular stage. Most stage theories have people pass through the stages in a specific order, with each stage building on capacities developed in the previous stage. This suggests that the development of certain abilities in each stage, such as specific emotions or ways of thinking, have a definite starting and ending point – ie: the stages are discreet from each other The pros and cons of stage theories Stage theories allow us to look at motivations, emotions, cognitions and behaviours that seem to cluster… Read More


Adult Education Teacher 1988-1996    1997   1998     1999     2000     2001    2002      2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011     2012     2013     2014      2015     2016     2017     2018      2019     2020    2021-2023 21st Century Group     HemsMESH     Humber MeshWORKS     Humberside MESH Network January-March: Delivered Psychology Topics – Prejudice & Obedience, Romantic Relationships and  Mental Health for Rossett’s Extended Schools Adult Education Programme. Commentary: For several months Extended Schools coordinator Malcolm Howe and I had been kicking around the idea of an ‘intermediate’ course for ‘graduates’ of the ‘Understanding Yourself & Others – an Introduction to Psychology’ course to further their leaning. When ‘Psychology Topics’ was finally staged, we were amazed at the number of participants who enrolled – having to cap enrolment at 16 for logistical reasons. About half came from the previous ‘Introduction…’ courses but just as many were totally new to my training. Malcolm had asked me to design the course so it wasn’t completely essential to have been on the ‘Introduction…’ course (though, clearly, it would help!) and I paired ‘newbies’ with ‘oldies’ when drawing upon concepts from the earlier programme. While there was a little drop out and not everyone could make… Read More


Teacher, Therapist, Counsellor, Consultant and Trainer…! 1988-1996    1997   1998     1999     2000     2001    2002      2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011     2012     2013     2014      2015     2016     2017     2018      2019     2020    2021-2023 21st Century Group     HemsMESH     Humber MeshWORKS     Humberside MESH Network February: Delivered interactive evening presentation, Dealing with Conflict – the Integrated SocioPsychology Approach, for the Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development West Yorkshire Branch at the Holiday Inn, Ossett. Commentary: CIPD’s Jane Walton had attended a similar session I had done in January 2007 as part of the Yorkshire Leadership Programme hosted by Wakefield College and used the ideas presented to help her tackle issues in her own work team. This convinced her to ask me to make the presentation. Feedback was enthusiastic. February: Began working on a long(-ish term) counselling project with two 10-year-old boys. Commentary: Both boys displayed significant behavioural problems, resulting from deep emotional traumas. My job was to help them recognise the traumas they had been through and acknowledge them while also coming to recognise the effect on others their acting out their problems was causing. One of the boys was so severely affected by… Read More

Psychosocial Development #2

PART 2 In his later stages, Erikson moves away from and beyond Sigmund Freud’s 5 stages. STAGE 5: PEER RELATIONSHIPS/ADOLESCENCE It was adolescence that interested Erikson first and most; and the patterns he saw here were the starting points for his thinking about all the other stages. At this stage, adolescents are in search of an identity that will lead them to adulthood. Adolescents make a strong effort to answer the question “Who am I?” Erikson notes the healthy resolution of earlier conflicts can now serve as a foundation for the search for an identity. If the child overcomes earlier conflicts, they are prepared to search for identity. Did they develop the basic sense of trust? Do they have a strong sense of industry to believe in themselves? Without these things, the adolescent is likely to experience confusion about their social role(s), meaning an uncertainty about your place in society and the world. When an adolescent is confronted by role confusion, Erikson says that is likely to produce an identity crisis. Erikson strongly supported the notion that society should provide clear rites of passage – certain accomplishments and rituals that help to distinguish the adult from the child. In one way… Read More

Psychosocial Development

Updated: 23 June 2016 Sigmund Freud’s (1920) concept of the Id can be seen as the self-expressive side of Clare W Graves’ Spiral – with its ultimate and most visceral expression in nodal RED. The development of the self-sacrificial/conformist side of the Spiral also parallels Freud’s thoughts to some considerable degree. Firstly, the PURPLE vMEME’s restriction of BEIGE instinct to gain acceptance sounds like the Freudian Ego’s determination to avoid the consequences of the Id’s behaviours. Then, the Superego’s Conscience element is reflected in BLUE’s drive to ‘do the right thing’; while there are strong echoes of the Superego’s Ego Ideal element – how things should be – in GREEN’s idealistic intentions toward human inter-relations. Thus, while the Psychodynamic approach is frequently criticised these days as ‘unscientific’ and ‘overly fanciful’, it is clear many aspects are still relevant and have much to offer in developing our understanding of Integrated SocioPsychology. No other psychological theorist has yet come up with an explanation – or linked series of explanations – of the ‘human condition’ anything like as comprehensive as Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory, the first of the Psychodynamic theories. Yet, from the earliest days of Freud’s theorising, it was obvious there were certain inconsistencies… Read More


These pages address the application of Integrated SocioPsychology concepts to lifespan development – with a specific theoretical application to infant attachments and romantic relationships. More immediately-topical observations can be found in the Blog. Those who support the Integrated approach and are interested in such matters are invited to submit pieces for publication here as ‘guest features’ or ‘guest reports’. Please get in touch with your ideas via the Contact page. Psychosocial Development An exploration of Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development in terms of Integrated SocioPsychology Infant Attachments The Biological Impetus to Attachment    05/11/22 A look at how biological factors and biological-environmental interaction influence mother-child bonding Attachment Theory Page outlining theories of attachment – and John Bowlby’s monotropic theory in particular Stages of  Infant Attachment Article comparing the stages of infant attachment outlined by John Bowlby and Rudolph  Schaffer & Peggy Emerson respectively Strange Situation  Page outlining and evaluating Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation as a measure of infant attachment Caregiver Sensitivity vs Temperament Hypothesis A consideration of how much the elements of Mary Ainsworth’s Caregiver Sensitivity Hypothesis and Jermome Kagan’s Temperament Hypothesis might interact to develop attachments Separation, Deprivation & Privation In-depth article looking at the effects of separation, maternal deprivation and privation on child… Read More

Bibliography E

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Eagly, Alice (1978): ‘Sex Differences in Influenceability’ in Psychological Bulletin #85 Eagly, Alice & Linda Carli (1981): ‘Sex of Researchers and Sex-Typed Communications as Determinants of Sex Differences in Influenceability: a Meta-Analysis of Social Influence Studies’ in Psychological Bulletin #90 Eaton, William, Preben Bo Mortensen & Morten Frydenberg (2000): ‘Obstetric Factors, Urbanization and Psychosis’ in Schizophrenia Research 43/2-3 Economist, The (2008): ‘Parrot Diplomacy’ (24 July) Economist, The (2020): ‘Britain is heading for a Hard Brexit. Voters now prefer None at All’ (7 December) Edmonds, David (2015): ‘Can Psychology help solve Long-Running Conflicts?’ (BBC News) (Accessed: 09/11/15) Edwards, Chris (1992): ‘Industrialisation in South Korea’ in Tom Hewitt, Hazel Johnson & Dave Wield (eds): ‘Industrialisation & Development’ (Oxford University Press) Edwards, D A (1968): ‘Mice: fighting by Neonatally Androgenised Females’ in Science 161/1027 Edwards, David & David Cromwell (2006): ‘Guardians of Power: the Myth of the Liberal Press’ (Pluto Press, London) Edwards, Jim, (2016): ‘The Number of People who regret voting for Brexit is now greater than the Margin of Victory for Leave’ (Business Insider UK) (Accessed: 18/10/16) Egger,… Read More


Updated: 5 December 2020 1988-1996    1997   1998     1999     2000     2001    2002      2003     2004     2005     2006     2007     2008     2009     2010     2011     2012     2013     2014      2015     2016     2017     2018      2019     2020    2021-2023 21st Century Group     HemsMESH     Humber MeshWORKS     Humberside MESH Network A middle class boy, born to parents from the upper working classes who had worked their way up into the lower professional grades, I was privileged to have parents who both cared for me and drove me – especially my father. My parents – like most! – had many faults and left me with more than a few issues – see: The Counsellor gets counselled! Yet overall they gave me a good start in life, pushing me through the 11-Plus and the grammar school system to do what had been almost impossible for upper working class teenagers of their generation: to go to university. I was raised mostly in the Lancashire (now Merseyside) town of St Helens…but the bulk of my family were in nearby Liverpool. And Liverpool, in the early-mid 1960s was the epicentre of the musical and social revolution that began with The Beatles and expanded through ‘Merseybeat’. A tremendously exciting… Read More

Tuition: AQA Psychology/Sociology

Updated: 28 August 2020 PLEASE NOTE THAT, DUE TO THE COVID-19 CRISIS, ALL MY WORK IS CARRIED OUT ONLINE UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE I have been providing – and thoroughly enjoying! – private tuition for students who benefit from a little extra help since early 2007. I am an ex-Head of Psychology at Woodhouse Grove School in Bradford (2011-2014) and a former teacher of Psychology, Sociology and Health & Social Care A-Levels at Rossett School in Harrogate (2007-2013). Both jobs were part-time, thus allowing overlap and time to pursue my work as a private tutor, trainer and counsellor/therapist. I have also taught Psychology at Vermuyden School (Goole) and Sherburn High School and twice had extended periods of supporting the Psychology department at Guiseley School. For a term in 2014 I took a temporary post teaching Psychology and Sociology on a university access course at Leeds City College. I gave up classroom teaching in 2014 to fulfil the increasing demand for my tutoring services following our move to Bradford in 2012. I thoroughly enjoy working with bright young people interested in the behavioural sciences and find that my work as an adult trainer, as well as my previous experience in counselling/therapy and consultancy, enables… Read More


Updated: 22 December 2020 PURPLE (B-O) thinking works on emotion, security, rituals, tokens, sense of belonging (my family, my friends, my workplace) and is very responsive to peer and family pressures RED (C-P) thinking is assertive (aggressive!), energetic, powerful, indulgent, self-centred and wants to dominate/be the best BLUE (D-Q) thinking is concerned with procedures, routines, order, quality, the correct way of doing things, is highly responsive to the ‘correct’ higher authority and punishes ‘sinners’ ORANGE (E-R) thinking is strategic and future-focussed, wants to achieve and improve, loves technology and innovation, and marks progress – eg: with status and wealth GREEN (F-S) thinking values people – all are equal and to be treated correctly, with decisions made by consensus In which of these ways do you think – at what times and in what contexts/circumstances? These vMEMES or modes of thinking form the second (PURPLE) through to the sixth (GREEN) ‘levels of existence’ in the Gravesian approach, arguably the most advanced map of human needs and motivations developed to date. vMEMES can be thought of as ‘value systems’, ‘core intelligences’ or even ‘mini-selves’. They each have their own way of thinking, sets of needs and motivations, and contextual strengths and weaknesses. The… Read More