Race: a subdivision of humankind which has distinct physical characteristics. These characteristics are inherited; and a view propounded by some on the basis of Evolutionary theory in the Nineteenth Century was that different racial populations were the result of Natural Selection, with some races being biologically more ‘advanced’ than others.
Unsurprisingly the concept of race is a socially-sensitive issue – with the idea of some races being more advanced than others now held to be publicly unacceptable as the egalitarianism of the GREEN vMEME has come to dominate much of academic thinking in the behavioural sciences. In terms of genetics, the bulk of the evidence is that there are only minor and relatively non-significant differences between racial groups. Nonetheless, there is a persistent minor stream of evidence that does suggest there may be real differences in such areas as intelligence – eg: Arthur Jensen (1969), Hans J Eysenck (1971), J Philippe Rushton & Arthur Jensen (2005). However,in terms of what might be considered superficial attributes, race is one of the main factors in our social identity, in the construction of stereotypes and the development of prejudice & discrimination.
Race Relations: the social relations between ethnic or racial groups and the study of those social relations.
The term ‘race relations’ is, in itself, controversial because its use is said to lend credence to the biological concept of race when the scientific foundation for such a clear distinction is far from strong.
Nontheless, the study of race relations does allow inferences to be made with regard to the social relations between such different groups and attention to be drawn to discrimination and racism.
Racism: beliefs about people based on race – usually negative stereotypes – which lead to prejudce & discrimination.
The acting out of discriminatory behaviour can range from an individual speaking in a derogatory way about someone of a different colour or ethnic group to ‘institutional racism’ in which people are discriminated against systematically – eg: access to housing or employment – because of their race.
As the PURPLE vMEME automatically distinguishes between those who are of its tribe and those who are not, major physical cues that someone is different to your tribe – such as their skin colour – provide a natural means for PURPLE to differentiate. See: ‘Is Racism Natural…?’
Range: see Measures of Dispersion.
Raphe Nuclei: a small group of cells near to the pons in the hindbrain, associated with the reticular formation and involved in the control of sleep.
Ratio Data: see Levels of Data.
Ratomorphism: a term coined by Arthur Koestler (1967) to deride the notion that you can learn about human beings from studying rats (and other animals) because rats and human beings are similar. Koestler points out that most people don’t regard themselves as similar to rats at all – therefore, the premise is conceptually flawed.
REM Sleep: the phase of sleep accompanied by rapid eye movement (REM) and short frequent, beta-like brain waves.
During REM sleep, the body from the neck down is in a state of paralysis. This is thought to be a constraint to prevent the sleeper acting out the vivid dreams which often occur during this phase. The neurotransmitters serotonin (REM on), acetylcholine (REM on and continuing) and noradrenaline (REM off) are known to be involved in REM sleep.
Reactive: when coupled with, say, Major Depression, this means that the condition is a response to an external stimulus (event or person), rather than being purely to do with Endogenous reasons.
Reactive Attachment Disorder: a categorisation built on what John Bowlby (1944) originally termed ‘Affectionless Psychopathy’. It is thought to result from the failure to form infant attachments or having such attachments severely disrupted or destroyed. The condition is characterised by the individual being unable to form normal relationships or throwing themselves impulsively into inappropriate relationships, an almost complete lack of emotion, conscience and guilt, with little or no sense of social and moral boundaries.
In Integrated SocioPsychology terms, it would appear that the PURPLE vMEME’s need for security and belonging has been crushed and so a form of unrestrained psychopathic RED has come to the fore. Bowlby believed that the effects of no or severely disrupted attachment were irreversible after 3.5 years of age; but general opinion seems to be that the age of 5 is a more likely marker. Work by Michael Rutter (1981) – amongst others – has indicated that the effects of infant attachment deprivation may not be irreversible in all instances if the opportunities for loving attachments are provided a little later in life – ie: pre- and early teens.
Recessive gene: see genes.
Reconstituted Family: see Blended Family.
Reciprocal Determinism: Albert Bandura’s concept that an individual’s personality and behaviour help to shape his/her Environment and the changed Environment then impacts upon personality and behaviour which, as changed, then helps change the Environment again, etc. Reciprocal Determinism explains how the neurological levels need to be re-aligned periodically and is reflected in the letter pairings of the Graves Model. As such, Reciprocal Determinism is a key element in the structure of Integrated SocioPsychology.
Relations of Production:
Reproductive Value: the expected reproductive success for any individual from their current age onwards.
Reputation Management: the term given by Nicholas Emler for the behaviour of an adolescent who, in the process of Identity formation, is unable to define their reputation in terms of academic success. That person will be likely to define success for themselves in anti-social and/or delinquent behaviour. What seems to be at stake here is the RED vMEME’s need to establish some form of self-esteem.
Reticular Activating System: a system in the midbrain which links the forebrain to the hindbrain and monitors signals related to arousal. Beginning in the spinal cord and passing through the brainstem, it’s also often classified as being in the hindbrain.Reticular Formation: an area in the brain containing the reticular activating system, adjacent to the raphe nuclei and the locus coeruleus.
Resourceful Self: an ‘Inner Child. exercise developed by Penny Parks which draws upon Carl Rogers’ concept of Self and the Ideal Self. It is a powerful tool for increasing self-efficacy.
RNA: ribonucleic acid is one of the 3 major macromolecules (along with DNA and proteins) that are essential for all known forms of life.
Like DNA, RNA is made up of a long chain of components called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nucleobase (sometimes called a nitrogenous base), a ribose sugar, and a phosphate group. The sequence of nucleotides allows RNA to encode genetic information. All cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to carry the genetic information that directs the synthesis of proteins.