Nativism: any orientation in Psychology or Philosophy that stresses the genetic, inherited influences on thought and behaviour over the acquired, experiential influences.
Nature-Nurture Debate: the issue of how much of human behaviour is innate and how much is learned has occupied philosophers and scientists for centuries. However, more recent understanding of the brain’s ‘plasticity’ – the way it develops structurally in response to external stimuli – is beginning to render the ‘nature vs nurture debate’ obsolete.
Negative Punishment: one of the forms of Operant Conditioning identified by B F Skinner. See Behaviourism.
Neo-Freudian: the term applied to psychologists like Carl Gustav Jung and Erik Erikson who have developed and modified the theories of Sigmund Freud.
Neo-Marxism: a loose term for various 20th Century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, usually by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions, such as: Critical Theory, Psychoanalytic Theory or Existentialism (in the case of Jean Paul Sartre).
Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP): its foundations laid by Richard Bandler & John Grinder and drawing initially upon the work of leaders in their fields such as hypnotherapist Milton Erickson, linguist Virginia Satyr and anthropologist/philosopher Gregory Bateson, NLP has evolved into a loosely-linked collection of philosophies, models and therapies, with an emphasis on practical and powerful applications.Dismissed by some academic psychologists as ‘unscientific’, NLP therapies are increasingly winning over therapists, practitioner psychologists and many in the medical professions simply because they are so effective.
Neurological Levels: developed by Robert Dilts (1990) – in part, at least, from the Logical Levels of Learning work of Gregory Bateson (1972), this is a stratification into levels of the way the mind orders its perceptions of the world. Neurological Levels also provides an excellent frame for understanding the significance of vMEMES and is a key element in Integrated SocioPsychology.
Dilts has been attacked in some quarters for a confused use of neurology and misuse of Bateson. However, the model is a very powerful one for understanding how we interact with the world around us. It supports and is supported by Albert Bandura’s (1977) concept of Reciprocal Determinism. Plus, the exercise Dilts designed to accompany it has a very significant success rate as a therapeutic intervention. Peter McNab’s Article, Aligning Neurological Levels – a Reassessment (1999), considers some of the controversy surrounding the model and gives it a theoretical reframe from Ken Wilber’s (1996) All Quadrants/All Levels perspective. See also Dilts’ Brain Science.
Neuron: a cell of the brain and nervous system that receives and conducts information by electro-chemical means. Information is received via the neuron’s dendrites – though some neurons also receive information directly into the soma (cell body). Information goes out via neurotransmitters from the terminal boutons at the tip of the axon.Some neurons are minute while others are several feet long.Neuroscience: the scientific study of the brain and nervous system.
Neuroscience: the study of how the nervous system develops, its structure, and what it does.
Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its impact on behaviour and cognitive functions. Not only is neuroscience concerned with the normal functioning of the nervous system, but also what happens to the nervous system when people have neurological, psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Neuroscience has traditionally been classed as a subdivision of Biology. These days it is an interdisciplinary science which liaises closely with other disciplines such as Mathematics, Linguistics, Engineering, Computer Science, Chemistry, Philosophy, Psychology and Medicine.
Many researchers say that neuroscience means the same as Neurobiology. However, Neurobiology looks at the biology of the nervous system while neuroscience refers to anything to do with the nervous system.
Neurosis: a personality or mental disturbance characterised by anxiety but where the patient has not lost touch with reality – eg: a phobia. The term ‘neurosis’ remains in use even though the distinction between it and psychosis has been dropped from the major Psychiatry classification systems.
Neuroticism: often taken as the aetiological basis (cause) of a neurosis, in his Dimensions of Temperament construct Hans J Eysenck more specifically used the term to mean ’emotional reactivity’ (on a Stable-Unstable scale). He attributed this to the degree of sensitivity of the amygdala.
Neurotransmitter: a chemical substance that is released at the synapse (junction) between neurons to affect the transmission of messages in the nervous system.
NLP Trauma Cure: a simple but highly-effective submodalities exercise to lessen significantly the emotional intensity of traumatic experiences. In some instances, application of the Trauma Cure can actually neutralise the effect of the experience.
New International Division of Labour:
NLP Communication Model:
NLPers: a colloquial term which tends to be given to people who practice NLP – whether qualified Practitioners or not.
Nocturnal Enuresis: commonly called ‘bedwetting’, this is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs. Nocturnal enuresis is considered primary (PNE) when a child has not yet had a prolonged period of being dry. Secondary nocturnal enuresis (SNE) is when a child or adult begins wetting again after having stayed dry.
Non-Verbal Communication: communication without the use of overt, spoken or written language. Researchers like Allan Pease (1981) estimate that upto 80% of the way we feel is communicated via body language while vocal tone can account for upto 30%.Nonconscious Processes:
Noradrenaline: aka norepinephrine, is both a hormone (produced by the adrenal gland for physiological arousal) and a neurotransmitter involved in stimulation of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system.
Norm: something that is standard, usual or typical of a group – be it tangible (eg: dress) or intangible (eg: attitude).
Nuclear Family: the basic family unit, consisting of father, mother and their biological children.