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Glossary F


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F-Scale (Fascism Scale): The F-Scale is a personality test designed by Theodor Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson & Nevitt Sanford (1950) to measure the authoritarian personality.
This personality type is defined by 9 traits that were believed to cluster together as the result of (Psychodynamic) childhood experiences. These traits are conventionalism, authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression, anti-intraception, superstition and stereotypy, power and ‘toughness’, destructiveness and cynicism, projectivity, and exaggerated concerns over sexuality (sexual repression). In brief, the ‘authoritarian’ is predisposed to follow the dictates of a strong leader and traditional, conventional values.

Face Validity:

Factor Analysis:

Failed State:

False Consensus Effect:


Fascism: is an authoritarian nationalist political ideology.
Fascists advocate the creation of a totalitarian single-party state that seeks the mass mobilisation of a nation through indoctrination, physical education and family policy including eugenics. Fascists seek to purge forces and ideas deemed to be the cause of decadence and degeneration and produce their nation’s rebirth based on commitment to the national community, an organic unity where individuals are bound together by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and ‘blood’. Fascists believe that a nation requires strong leadership, singular collective identity, and the will and ability to commit violence and wage war in order to keep the nation strong. Fascist governments forbid and suppress opposition to the state.


Feminist Theory: Feminist Theory is the extension of Feminism into theoretical, or philosophical discourse; it aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women’s social roles and lived experience, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as Anthropology and Sociology, communication, Psychoanalysis, economics, literary criticism, education and Philosophy.

Fight or Flight:

Flooding: a Behaviourist therapy which gives the client maximum exposure to a feared stimulus until the fear subsides, thus extinguishing the learned response. The exposure can be real or imagined.
Application of the technique needs to be finely judged as high anxiety is a critical factor in the process. While the therapy has been famously successful in many instances, debilitating stress reactions in some clients have made the technique controversial.

fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging is a technique that directly measures the blood flow in the brain, thereby providing information on brain activity

Folk Devils:

Forebrain: that part of the brain comprising the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia, the limbic system and the thalamus. See also cerebrum.Formation: the development of a person’s character, personality and motivations as a whole.

Frame of Reference: a structure of schemas (values, beliefs, memories) on which we evaluate new information or development of thinking and form primary states and meta-states.

Freudian: something derived from the work of Sigmund Freud or a follower of his work.

Freudo-Marxism: a loose designation of several mid-20th-century schools of thought that have sought to synthesise the philosophy and political economy of Karl Marx with the Psychoanalytic Theory of Sigmund Freud.
A critical  question for these schools has been: why did Fascism have mass appeal? The fact of that appeal confounded much of orthodox Marxist thought. The gist of the answer Freudo-Marxists give is that the masses have internalised their oppression as suppression. The internalisation of the upper class in the minds of the lower class is as a kind of Superego keeping their need for self-expression repressed.

Front Region: see Back Region.

Frontal Cortex:

Functional Prerequisites:

Functionalism: theories in Sociology and Social Anthropology which explain social institutions primarily in terms of the functions they perform.
A function, in this context, is the consequences of one social activity or phenomenon  for the operation of another social activity, institution or society as a whole.

Fundamental Attribution Error: