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Keith E Rice's Integrated SocioPsychology Blog & Pages

Aligning, integrating and applying the behavioural sciences

Rogers’

Attribution Theory

Updated: 17 June 2016 According to Fritz Heider (1958), we produce attributions (beliefs about the causes of behaviour) based on two sources of information… Internal attributions – based on something within the individual whose behaviour is being observed – their natural character External attributions – based on something external to that individual – nothing to do with who they are specifically, it is the situation they are in Internal attributions are often referred to as dispositional attributions while external attributions are called situational attributions. Internal or External Locus of Control? In his development of Attribution Theory, Heider was concerned primarily with how we understand the behaviour of others. The mechanisms for how we attribute the behaviour of others have been explored with varying degrees of success in Correspondent Inference Theory, Covariation Theory and Causal Schemata. However, Julian B Rotter (1966) focused on how people attribute the reasons for their own behaviour. From his research, Rotter concluded that people tend to have either:- internal locus of control – ie: they decide what to do – the root of their behaviour is dispositional external locus of control – ie: their behaviour is shaped by external, situational factors – eg: expectations Rotter found that,… Read More

Bibliography R

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred (1952): ‘Structure and Function in Primitive Society: Essays & Addresses’ (Cohen & West, London) Rafiq, Arif (2015): ‘Islamic State goes Official in South Asia’ in The Diplomat (4 February) Rahnema, Majid (1997): ‘Introduction’ in Majid Rahnema & Victoria Bawtree (eds): ‘The Post-Development Reader’ (Zed Books) London) Raine, Adrian (1993): ‘The Psychopathology of Crime: Criminal Behaviour as a Clinical Disorder’ (Academic Press, Waltham MA) Raine, Adrian, Monte Buchsbaum & Lori LaCasse (1997): ‘Brain Abnormalities in Murderers indicated by Positron Emission Tomography’ in Biological Psychiatry #42 Raine, Adrian, Reid Melroy, Susan Bihrle, Jackie Stoddard, Lori LaCasse & Monte Buchsbaum  (1998): ‘Reduced Prefrontal and Increased Subcortical Brain Functioning assessed using Positron Emission Tomography in Predatory and Affective Murderers’ in Behavioural Sciences & the Law #16 Raine, Adrian, Peter Venables & Mark Williams (1995): ’High Autonomic Arousal and Electrodermal Orienting at Age 15 as Protective Factors against Criminal Behaviour at Age 29 Years’ in American Journal of Psychiatry #152 Ramey, Craig (1992): ‘High-Risk Children and IQ: altering Intergenerational Patterns’ in Intelligence #16 Rankin, Jennifer (2016): ‘John Kerry: Brexit could… Read More

Bibliography P-Q

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Pakko, Michael & Susan Pollard (2003): ‘Burgernomics: A Big Mac™ Guide to Purchasing Power Parity’ (Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis Review) https://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/review/ (Accessed: 01/12/11) Palmer, Bill  (2017): ‘Confirmed: Russia put up Millions of Dollars to fund French Presidential Candidate Marine Le Pen’ (Palmer Report) http://www.palmerreport.com/politics/russia-marine-le-pen-french-president/2425/ (Accessed: 14/06/17) Palmer, Stephen & Ray Wolfe (1999): ‘Integrative and Eclectic Counselling and Psychotherapy’ (Sage Publications) Pannell, Ian & Darren Conway (2013): ‘Syria Crisis: Incendiary Bomb Victims “like the walking dead” (BBC News) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-23892594 (Accessed: 29/08/13) Papez, James (1937): ‘A Proposed Mechanism of Emotion’ in Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry #38 Paquette, Daniel (2004): ‘Theorizing the Father-Child Relationship: Mechanisms and Developmental Outcomes’ in Journal of Human Development #47 Parke, Ross (1981): ‘Fathers’ (Harvard University Press) Parker, Kandis Cooke & Donald Forrest (1993): ‘Attachment  Disorder: an Emerging Concern for Shool Counsellors’ in Elementary School Guidance & Counselling 27/3 Parks, Penny (1994): ‘The Counsellor’s Guide to Parks Inner Child Therapy’ (Souvenir Press, London) Parsons, Talcott (1937): ‘The Structure of Social Action’ (McGraw Hill, New York NY) Parsons, Talcott (1964): ‘Evolutionary Universals in… Read More

Clare W Graves’ Research

Updated: 12 June 2018 Clare W Graves (1914-1986) was the psychologist on whose work Spiral Dynamics and several other powerful and practical conceptual models have been built. Although he achieved the emminent position of ‘Professor of Psychology Emeritus’ at Union College, Schenectady, New York State, when he retired through ill health in 1978, he was not particularly well known outside of certain academic and management theory networks and he has been largely ignored since his death. However, his model and the theory that supports it are without doubt amongst the most powerful and certainly the most cohesive and comprehensive of all attempts to map the development of the human psyche. Those who get to grips with Graves’ work tend to become decidedly passionate about it – such is the power of the model! His work is critical and fundamental to the aims of Psychology and the other behavioural sciences and is at the core of Integrated SocioPsychology. Graves was an associate professor at Union when he began his remarkable project in 1952. (He became a full professor in 1956.) At the time Graves recognised the frustration of his students when trying to make sense of the differing theories of personality development and human… Read More

Bibliography A

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Abrahams, Jessica (2015): ‘Are Men Natural Born Criminals? The Prison Numbers don’t lie’ in Daily Telegraph (13 January) Abramson, Lyn Y, Martin E P Seligman & John Teasdale (1978): ‘Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation’ in Journal of Abnormal Psychology #87 Adams, Henry, Lester Wright & Bethany Lohr (1996): ‘Is Homophobia associated with Homosexual Arousal?’ in Journal of Abnormal Psychology 105/3 Adizes, Ichak (1987): ‘Corporate LifeCycles: How and Why Corporations Grow and Die and What to Do About It’ (Prentice Hall Press, Englewood Cliffs NJ) Adizes, Ichak (1996): ‘ The Pursuit of Prime: maximise Your Company’s Success with the Adizes Programme’ (Knowledge Exchange, Santa Monica CA) Adizes, Ichak (1999): ‘Managing Corporate LifeCycles’ (Prentice Hall Press, Paramus NJ) Adler, Alfred (1922): ‘The Practice & Theory of Individual Psychology’ (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London) Adorno, Theodore, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson & R Nevitt Sanford (1950): ‘The Authoritarian Personality’ (Harper & Row, New York NY) Ahrens, R (1954): ‘Beitrag zur Entwicklung des Physiognomie und Mimikerkennens, Teil I, II’ in Zeitschrift fur Experimental und Angewantde Psychologie #2… Read More

Epigenetics

Updated: 4 July 2018 Epigenetics is an approach that helps to explain how nurture shapes nature to produce the phenotype from the genotype – in other words, how you become who you are from your genetic potential. In the words of Mark Solms & Oliver Turnbull (2002, p11): “…the fine organisation of the brain is literally sculpted by the environment in which it finds itself – far more so than any other organ in the body, and over much longer periods of time.” Whilst in no way undermining the importance of Genetics, it does undermine genetic determinism because it allows that virtually everything in the life span of an individual – from diet and nutrition, to ingestion of toxins, to social experiences, etc, etc – can influence the expression of genes to produce differences in motivation, temperament, cognition, behaviour and mental health. Bruce Lipton (2008) has put forward evidence to claim that emotions and even unconscious beliefs can bring about epigenetic modification. Conrad Waddington is credited with first using the term ‘epigenetics’ in Biology in 1946. ‘Epi’ is a Greek term meaning upon or above. Thus, epigenetics reflects the effects that take place upon, above or in addition to genetics.This original… Read More

vMEMES

Updated: 09/06/18 PURPLE (B-O) thinking works on emotion, security, rituals, tokens, sense of belonging (my family, my friends, my workplace) and is very responsive to peer and family pressures RED (C-P) thinking is assertive (aggressive!), energetic, powerful, indulgent, self-centred and wants to dominate/be the best BLUE (D-Q) thinking is concerned with procedures, routines, order, quality, the correct way of doing things, is highly responsive to the ‘correct’ higher authority and punishes ‘sinners’ ORANGE (E-R) thinking is strategic and future-focussed, wants to achieve and improve, loves technology and innovation, and marks progress – eg: with status and wealth GREEN (F-S) thinking values people – all are equal and to be treated correctly, with decisions made by consensus In which of these ways do you think – at what times and in what contexts/circumstances? These vMEMES or modes of thinking form the second (PURPLE) through to the sixth (GREEN) ‘levels of existence’ in the Gravesian approach, arguably the most advanced map of human needs and motivations developed to date. vMEMES can be thought of as ‘value systems’, ‘core intelligences’ or even ‘mini-selves’. They each have their own way of thinking, sets of needs and motivations, and contextual strengths and weaknesses. The colours applied… Read More

Neurological Levels

Updated: 28 May 2016 The Neurological Levels concept was developed by Robert Dilts (1990) taking much of his inspiration from the work of Gregory Bateson (leading anthropologist, philosopher and seminal figure in the early development of NLP – particularly his Logical Levels of Learning construct (1972). For this model of abstracted levels of what we learn and how it affects us, Bateson himself drew on the Logical Typing of mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell (1910). Taking his cue from Bateson, Dilts conceived a hierarchy of levels the mind uses to order its relationship with the world. Dilts linked these ‘Logical Levels’ to neurological functions and structure of the brain. Thus, Neurological Levels! While the supposed ‘logicality’ of the model has been attacked and the way Dilts’ has used neurology is sometimes open to question – see Peter McNab’s Article, Aligning Neurological Levels -a Reassessment (1999) – almost everyone who has worked with the model testifies to its power to describe what we might call Nominal Level Adaptation. (See: Integrated SocioPsychology.) In other words, the match of Identity – and the Values & Beliefs which flow from Identity – to the Environment in which we find ourselves. The key to a healthy psyche (selfplex),… Read More

Fare Thee Well, Christopher Cowan!

Spiral Dynamics co-developer Chris Cowan passed away on 15 July at the Serenity House hospice in Santa Barbara, California. He was diagnosed with aggressive and incurable pancreatic cancer in June after returning from delivering a training programme in Italy with his personal and business partner Natasha Todorovic. I hadn’t seen Chris since December 1998. We hadn’t had a meaningful discourse since 2009 and hadn’t had any communication at all since the end of 2012 (exchange of Christmas best wishes). So it’s a measure of the man and his influence on my life that I feel compelled to write something about him at his passing. Put quite simply, the Spiral Dynamics (SD-1 certification) workshops that Chris and his then-business partner Don Beck staged with the Business Link in Wakefield in March-April 1998 were a major turning point in my life. I was acutely stressed at the time in both my work and relationship situations, unable to see how to resolve either one or even to understand what was happening to me. In terms of the process of change, I was in the Gamma Trap in both. Through the understanding Spiral Dynamics gave me, I was able to resolve both situations and, apart from… Read More

The ‘Gay Cure’: was Spitzer right to recant?

Robert L Spitzer is one of the giants of modern Psychiatry, a scientific philosopher as much as a hands-on medical man. He’s been a fearless opponent of too-easily-accepted givens, notably challenging some of David Rosenhan’s conclusions in his 1973 study, On Being Sane in Insane Places. However, Spitzer really made his mark by leading the campaign to have homosexuality removed from the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual (DSM) as a psychiatric disorder – which it was in 1973. So the news last week that Spitzer had ‘recanted’ a study he had carried out in 2000-2001 and had published in 2003 caught my eye – especially as I had referenced that same study in a lengthy letter I had published in Therapy Today, the journal of the British Association of Counselling & Psychotherapy, in 2009. My letter, titled ‘An Imposed Etic’, was published as ‘An Imposed Ethic’ – presumably the editor thought ‘etic’ was a spelling mistake and didn’t get the sense I was trying to convey through the use of the term ‘imposed etic’. My point was that particular, localised values and norms were being applied as though they were universals, without empirical justification. I had been somewhat concerned by John Daniels’ article,… Read More