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Keith E Rice's Integrated SocioPsychology Blog & Pages

Aligning, integrating and applying the behavioural sciences

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Is Collectivism being overtaken by Individualism?

Updated: 9 November 2016 It’s been a given in cross-cultural research in the behavioural sciences that Individualism has increasingly dominated in the West since at least the end of World War II while the rest of the world has tended to be collectivistic. In the context of the early 21st Century, this dichotomy provokes 2 key questions:- Was it ever as simple as: West, individualistic; rest of the world, collectivistic – and, if so, how did it get to be so? Is Collectivism being overtaken by Individualism – and, if so, what are the driving factors? Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede & Michael Minkov (2010) define Individualism as “the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups”. In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. People are expected to stand up for themselves and their immediate family, and to choose their own affiliations. By contrast, in collectivistic societies, individuals are seen to act predominantly as members of a lifelong and cohesive group or organisation. People have large extended families which provide safety in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Individualism, according to Ellen Meiksins Wood (1973), is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology or social outlook that emphasises the… Read More

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Bibliography V

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Vallaise, Justin (2010): ‘Eurabian Follies: the Shoddy and Just Plain Wrong Genre that refuses to die’ (Foreign Policy) http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/01/04/eurabian_follies?page=0,2 (Accessed: 03/06/13) Van Avermaet, Eddy (2001): ‘Social Influences in Small Groups’ in Miles Hewstone & Wolfgang Stroebe (eds): ‘Introduction to Social Psychology’ (3rd Edition, Blackwell, Oxford UK) Van Dusen, Katherin, Sarnoff Mednick, William Gabrielli & Barry Hutchings (1983): ‘Social Class and Crime in an Adoption Cohort’ in Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 74/1 Van Goozen, Stephanie, Heddeke Snoek, Graeme Fairchild & Gordon Harold (2007): ‘The Evidence for a Neurobiological Model of Childhood Anti-Social Behaviour’ in Psychological Behaviour #133 Van IJzendoorn, Marinus & Pieter Kroonenberg (1988): ‘Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment: a Meta-Analysis of the Strange Situation’ in Child Development #59 Van IJzendoorn, Marinus & Abraham Sagi (2008): ‘Cross-Cultural Patterns of Attachment’ in Jude Cassidy & Phil Shaver (eds): ‘Handbook of Attachment’  (Guilford Press, New York NY) Van IJzendoorn, Marinus, Abraham Sagi &  Miryam Lambermon (1992): ‘The Multiple Caretaker Paradox: Data from Holland and Israel’ in New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development #57 Van Orden, Kimberley, Tracy Witte, Kelly Cukrowicz,… Read More

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Bibliography R

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred (1952): ‘Structure and Function in Primitive Society: Essays & Addresses’ (Cohen & West, London) Rafiq, Arif (2015): ‘Islamic State goes Official in South Asia’ in The Diplomat (4 February) Rahnema, Majid (1997): ‘Introduction’ in Majid Rahnema & Victoria Bawtree (eds): ‘The Post-Development Reader’ (Zed Books) London) Raine, Adrian (1993): ‘The Psychopathology of Crime: Criminal Behaviour as a Clinical Disorder’ (Academic Press, Waltham MA) Raine, Adrian, Monte Buchsbaum & Lori LaCasse (1997): ‘Brain Abnormalities in Murderers indicated by Positron Emission Tomography’ in Biological Psychiatry #42 Raine, Adrian, Reid Melroy, Susan Bihrle, Jackie Stoddard, Lori LaCasse & Monte Buchsbaum  (1998): ‘Reduced Prefrontal and Increased Subcortical Brain Functioning assessed using Positron Emission Tomography in Predatory and Affective Murderers’ in Behavioural Sciences & the Law #16 Raine, Adrian, Peter Venables & Mark Williams (1995): ’High Autonomic Arousal and Electrodermal Orienting at Age 15 as Protective Factors against Criminal Behaviour at Age 29 Years’ in American Journal of Psychiatry #152 Ramey, Craig (1992): ‘High-Risk Children and IQ: altering Intergenerational Patterns’ in Intelligence #16 Rankin, Jennifer (2016): ‘John Kerry: Brexit could… Read More

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Bibliography O

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z O’Grady, Sean (2016): ‘Even though We voted for It, a Brexit won’t happen in the End. Here’s why’ (The Independent) http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/brexit-wont-really-happen-second-referendum-markets-value-housing-pound-a7106996.html (Accessed: 28/06/16) O’Grady, Sean (2018): ‘Enoch Powell’s ‘Rivers of Blood’ Speech marked Him out as the Prototype Trump’ (The Independent) https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/enoch-powell-rivers-of-blood-speech-50-years-trump-immigration-right-wing-a8299211.html (Accessed: 27/04/18) O’Malley, Padraig (1993): ‘Political Interview: 11 Aug 1993: Hall, John‘ (The O’Malley Archives/Nelson Mandela Foundation) https://www.nelsonmandela.org/omalley/cis/omalley/OMalleyWeb/03lv00017/04lv00344/05lv00730/06lv00765.htm (Accessed: 31/12/15) O’Toole, Emer (2018): ‘Brexit Deal criticised for trying to ‘cherry pick’ Single Market’ in The Nationalist (6 July) O’Toole, Finton (2017): ‘What connects Brexit, the DUP, Dark Money and a Saudi Prince?’ in Irish Times (16 May) Observer Editorial (2016): ‘Theresa May has No Mandate for her Little Britain. There are Far Greater Issues at Stake’ in The Observer (9 October) Office of National Statistics (2007): ‘Focus on Social Inequality’ (Palgrave Macmillan, London) Ogilvie, Alan, Sharon Battersby, Vivien Bubb, George Fink, Anthony Harmar, Guy Goodwin & Dale Smith (1996): ‘Polymorphism in Serotonin Transporter Gene associated with Susceptibility to Major Depression’ in The Lancet #347 Oldroyd-Bolt, David (2016): ‘The Many, Many Millions of Mogg’ in… Read More

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Bibliography G

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Gaertner, Samuel, John Dovidio, P A Anastasio, B A Bachman & M C Rust (1993): ‘The Common In-group Identity Model: Recategorisation and the Reduction of Intergroup Bias’ in Wolfgang Stroebe & Miles Hewstone (eds): ‘European Review of Social Psychology Vol 4’ (Fourth Edition, Wiley New York NY) Galeano, Eduardo (1971; translated by Cedric Belfrage, 1973): ‘Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent’ (Monthly Press Review, New York NY) Galen, Claudius (translated by G Helmreich, 1878): ‘Galeni de Elementis ex Hippocrates Libri Il’ [‘On the Elements according to Hippocrates’] [Deichert, Erlangen) Gall, Carlotta & Thomas de Waal (1997): ‘Chechnya: A Small Victorious War’ (Pan, London) Galtung, Johan & Marie Holmboe Ruge (1970): ‘The Structure of Foreign News’ in Jeremy Tunstall: ‘Media Sociology: a Reader’ (Constable, London) Gana, Kamel, Yaël Saada & Aurélie Untas (2013): ‘Effects of Love Styles on Marital Satisfaction in Heterosexual Couples: a Dyadic Approach’ in Marriage & Family Review #49 Garcia, John, Frank Ervin & Robert Koelling (1966): ‘Learning with Prolonged Delay of Reinforcement’ in Journal of Psychonomic Science 5/3 Garcia, John, Kenneth… Read More

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Bibliography B

A    B    C    D    E    F    G    H    I    J    K    L    M    N    O    P-Q    R    S     T     U    V    W    X-Y-Z Badawy, Abdulla (2006): ‘Alcohol and Violence and the Possible Role of Serotonin’ in Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 13/1 Baechler, Jean (1979): ‘Suicides’ (Blackwell, Oxford) Bagdikian, Ben (2004): ‘The New Media Monopoly’ (7th Edition, Beacon Press, Boston MA) Bailey, Heidi, Greg Moran, David Pederson & Sandi Bento (2007): ‘Understanding the Transmission of Attachment using Variable- and Relationship-Centred Approaches’ in Development and Psychopathology 19/2 Bailey, Rodger (1991): ‘The Language and Behaviour Profile’ (self-study manual and audio-tape set, Language and Behaviour Institute, Poughkeepsie NY) Bain, Jerald, Ronald Langevin, Ronald Dickey & Mark Ben-Aron (1987): ‘Sex Hormones in Murderers and Assaulters’ in Behavioural Science & the Law #5 Baize, Harold & Jonathan Schroeder (1995): ‘Personality and Mate Selection in Personal Ads: Evolutionary Preferences in a Public Mate Selection Process’ in Journal of Social Behaviour & Personality 10/3 Bakan, Joel (2004): ‘The Corporation: the Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power’ (Constable, London) Baker, Robin & Mark Bellis (1995): ‘Human Sperm Competition: Copulation, Masturbation, and Infidelity’ (Cambridge University Press) Baker, Robin & Elizabeth Oram (2000): ‘Baby Wars: the Dynamics of Family Conflict’ (HarperCollins, London) Baker,… Read More

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2010 – Grim but not hopeless

by Jon Twigge & Keith E Rice Over the past 6 months or so, I’ve found quite a meeting of minds with Jon Twigge, an ardent Spiral Dynamics Integral enthusiast and supporter of the Centre of Human Emergence – UK.  He’s graciously allowed me to cross-publish a couple of pieces he wrote for his own blog. Now, we’ve co-written this post which will appear on both blogs. It began life as Jon’s rough draft which we ‘kicked around a little’ until we both felt it said what needed to be said. All great civilisations of the past have faltered. At some point very soon we are going to be facing the real consequences of the banking crisis.  Government has already announced cuts and more will follow as the full implications of the costs involved come home to roost. Does this crisis mark a downward turn in the modern Western Capitalist system?  One that may we not completely recover from? One probable, and short term, consequence is that local authorities will have their funding from central government severely cut back – one reliable source has told me (Keith) a large amount of the 60% of the funding local authorities get from central government is going to go.  We… Read More

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The Thatcherite Project is ended. Whither Britain?

As Gordon Brown sits in 10 Downing Street and contemplates the terrible drubbing the small turn-out of disillusioned voters inflicted on Labour in Thursday’s local elections – 273 Labour seats lost – while hoping desperately that yesterday’s emergency reshuffle of his Cabinet will at least temporarily stall the intra-Labour campaign to oust him and that Sunday’s European election results will not be as bad as predicted, there is one crumb of comfort for him in all this…. The Thatcherite project, which, with his roots in traditional Socialism, he must have hated, is at an end. Margaret Thatcher’s philosophy of the pursuit of individual wealth in an unregulated market, with few or no social responsibilities, was an ethos driven by the ORANGE vMEME. And, for quite a time, that philosophy seemed vindicated. After being the ‘sick man of Europe’ in the 1970s, Britain once again become an economic powerhouse and a country of standing on the world stage, with Thatcher seen clearly to exert influence on those ‘leaders of the free world’, Ronald Reagan and the first George Bush. Thatcherism reached its Capitalist zenith in 1989 with the collapse of European Communism and even China starting to crawl towards a sort of… Read More

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