The Parks Primary School
The Meshing of Two Primary Schools
Updated: 11 September 2004
The Parks is one of the most complete project reports on the use of the Gravesian approach anywhere in the world and many people have suggested that I must have been much more involved than the report suggests. Well, I wasn’t! This is Cathy Byrne’s story, not mine. My RED would love to report that Cathy was on the phone to me every night asking how to do *this* and how to handle such-and-such a person. Unfortunately, it wasn’t like that. My influence, as Cathy has acknowledged widely, came through the training programme and then as an occasional adviser in the background.
I like to think of the remarkable story of The Parks as being a first class example of just how much you can accomplish when you really grasp these concepts at an intuitive level.
Most afternoons Cathy Byrne, Headteacher of The Parks Primary School on Hull’s Orchard Park Estate, sees her pupils off the premises with something of the pastorly air of a vicar bidding farewell to the congregation as they exit a church service.
However, most mornings Cathy is also in the playground, welcoming her charges into school with equal warmth. “It also gives the parents the opportunity to speak to me informally,” she says. “‘Mrs Byrne, while I’m thinking, can I just mention….’ That sort of thing.”
This air of deferential approachability is just one manifestation of the way Cathy has, in Gravesian terms, made herself something of a PURPLE shamaness to the local community.
She says, “I can’t say that I automatically think in a Spiral Dynamics way; but I usually find, upon review, that I have been!” So it was that Cathy found she intuitively recognised the structure of vMEMES – and could relate it to her own experiences – when she attended my workshop programme, An Introduction to Spiral Dynamics & Related Models of NLP, staged at nearby St Mary’s College during June-July 2001.
At the time Cathy was Headteacher at Danepark Primary School on Orchard Park.
As part of its BLUE rationalisation programme to cut the number of surplus school places, Kingston Upon Hull City Council had determined that either Danepark or neighbouring Court Park must close. (Of the other two primaries on Orchard Park, the Council had already decreed that Shaw Park was to close, with its children (and some staff) being offered places at Thorpepark.)
At the time Cathy attended my workshops, the Council’s preference was for both schools to close and a new school to open on the Danepark site. Children and some of the staff from both schools were to be offered places at the new school.
In addition to this plan obliging her to apply for the job of Headteacher at the new school if she wished to continue, Cathy recognised that it brought its own problems – particularly at the PURPLE level of integrating 2 tribes.
Orchard Park Estate is often compared to the nearby and larger Bransholme on Hull’s north-eastern boundary, with similar levels of poverty and deprivation. A key indicator is that over 50% of children on Orchard Park are entitled to free school meals. The other usual indicators are high unemployment, debt, gang violence, burglaries, prostitution, drugs and alcohol abuse, levels of sickness, malnutrition, etc, etc. Many claim, though, that Orchard Park is a tougher and more violent estate than even Bransholme (which has a reputation for it!). (2 young women were brutally murdered in separate incidents on Orchard Park in 2003.)
The estate breaks down into a number of sub-areas – Danes, Courts, Thorpes and Shaws – each of which had its own primary school until the Council’s rationalisation programme began. These geographical sub-areas are characterised by PURPLE tribalism which, combined with deprivation and the drugs trade, fosters PURPLE-RED street gangs.
The Council’s BLUE consultation process on the schools had set the PURPLE of the Courts ‘tribe’ against the PURPLE of the Danes ‘tribe’, with those whose self-expressive RED was strong taking the reins of leadership and all too often demonising ‘the other side’. The consultation meetings, which were conducted with each school community separately, enabled some very confrontational expressions of this purple/RED demagogy.
Almost from before the consultation process began, Cathy Byrne worked with the Danepark parents to not only soothe their concerns as best she could but also to help them learn how to express their anger and resentment in less confrontational ways.
It was clear that any merging, in whatever form, of children from Danepark and Court Park, meant bringing together 2 quite distinct tribal identities.
It had been the Courts community’s complete rejection of the merger by arguing that there simply was no room at their school for the Danepark children which had swung the Council in favour of locating the new school at Danepark. Undeterred, they mounted a legal challenge which temporarily halted the merger process.
Goodbye to Danepark
By October 2001 the merger was back on. Now, accepting that they could not prevent a merger, the PURPLE/red of the Courts community was determined that the new school would be on their ‘territory’. They proposed to create the extra space they had said they didn’t have by evicting the Youth Service from their building in the school. As Court Park was more central to the Courts and Danes catchement areas than Danepark, the argument now swung in their favour.
After some consideration and with her sense of mission for Orchard Park not yet completed, Cathy Byrne determined that she would apply for the position of Headteacher at the new school. Encouraged by friends, colleagues, local organisations and Danepark parents, Cathy started to put together her strategy for merging the schools. She drafted in help from several sources, including calling me in, to look at the situation from a Spiral perspective. From that session, Cathy recognised the need to multi-manage all the vMEMES in play from 2nd Tier thinking.
At her interview before the Temporary Board of Governors, Cathy revealed her vision for the school: “I promised to put the children at the heart of everything I do, think the best of everyone and expect the best from everyone, and merge the two schools keeping the best of both and creating a new school for the 21st Century.”
Once appointed, Cathy found herself effectively working in 3 directions simultaneously:-
- dealing with the way Hull City Council’s Directorate of Learning was handling the closures and the creation of the new school
- managing the last months of Danepark
- forging an identity and an organisation for the new school
With regard to the demise of Danepark, Cathy felt it was important to honour the PURPLE sense of belonging, tradition and history at Danepark. She arranged for a collection of Danepark memorabilia to be gathered and the school was even given a formal farewell ceremony. “Our aim was to keep stability at the school and ensure teaching and learning continued uninterrupted while at the same time closing the school with dignity, acknowledging its place in history and the contributions of many individuals over the years.”
However, as well as burying Danepark “with dignity, giving it its due place in history – lots of PURPLE”, Cathy was also working on preparing her people for the new school. “As soon as the merger was announced I let a decent interval of mourning pass and then started getting my community not only to accept but to welcome the idea. At first this had to be by allegiance to me – ‘we’ll go to the new school if you will, Mrs. Byrne’; then I weaned them off the dependence on me – in case I didn’t get the job. I managed this with most parents, not all but in the event that didn’t matter.”
Hello to The Parks!
Almost from her appointment, Cathy was working on her strategy to develop an identity that both Danepark and Court Park could buy into.
This included building community confidence for the new school by such things as:-
- sending regular newsletters to all parents, community organisations and the LEA (Local Education Authority/Directorate of Learning)
- involving all the community in choosing the name, logo, uniform, start and finish times, etc – but in such a way that nobody got too upset when their idea was not chosen
- getting both communities together to push for a Puffin crossing on Hall Road (a busy road adjacent to the school) and then choosing the best location for it
- organising visits by Danepark parents to the Court Park site
A name was chosen – ‘The Parks’ – which alluded to past identities yet also was a completely unique and new name for the new school. Cathy got funding from the local Area Committee to give free school sweatshirts (bearing The Parks logo) to all children so they would all start the September term in the same brand new uniform. She even created a school song – writing the words herself to music by the Hull Learning Music Support Service.
To help the Danepark children start to associate their PURPLE safety needs with the Court Park site, Cathy “arranged visits for the Danepark children to meet the Court Park ones and find out where the loos are, where the lunch is served, where the playground is, etc.”
Cathy and her new Parks staff worked furiously over the Summer to set up the new school at the former Court Park site – putting in 39 days more than the limited (and fixed!) LEA support allowed for.
In recalling the practicalities of the move, Cathy says: “I think with the LEA I have gone along with their ‘BLUE’ – e.g. they demanded a detailed inventory. I asked how detailed they wanted – did we have to count the staples?! And they replied no but we had to count the staplers.”
The Parks was formally opened by BBC TV Look North presenter Helen Philpott on 3 October. (The Governors preferring a celebrity to a politician or a representative of the LEA.)
Cathy’s strategy of seeking to honour the old PURPLE identities of Danepark and Court Park while fashioning a new PURPLE identity (in a strong BLUE structure) for The Parks appears to have been most successful with the children. In spite of their books and equipment like overhead projectors and computers bearing the names of the closed schools as a ready reminder, to the knowledge of staff there has not been a single Court/Dane dispute amongst the children.
Given the interest the children from Court Park were taking in the Danepark memorabilia which had been brought into The Parks, Cathy started asking people to bring in items from Court Park days with the intention of creating an equivalent collection of memorabilia.
One outcome of this was that one of the former Court Park parents produced a CD of songs that school used to sing. With the aid of 3 Year 6 boys who taught everybody the actions to the songs, The Parks unearthed some of the old Court Park PURPLE at the rate of one song per week and incorporated them into The Parks identity – so that they become ‘Parks songs’.
While the children from the 2 closed schools seemed to be accepting of each other, not all of them were so accepting of the new authority structure. Cathy had brought the majority of the Danepark teachers with her; but most of the teachers from the already-understaffed Court Park had not applied to join the new school. Thus, as Cathy pointed out: “Some had lost their teachers; others had lost their [Danepark] building.” With their PURPLE security and stability needs compromised, “The RED came out fairly early on in a few children openly defying our authority,” Cathy says. “I excluded more than I liked to but it needed to be done to show how far is too far.”
Work on building a new staff team had begun in the last term of the old schools. “We had been meeting last term already,” Cathy relates, “and then on the second of the two training days we had a lunch with all staff (caretakers, cleaners etc.) and governors. I stipulated that people had to sit with others they don’t normally work with and there was an extremely happy atmosphere. As the time approached we were so busy that I started to resent the time for this lunch but realised that it was an essential part of the PURPLE.”
The us-and-them was also minimised by the arrival of four new teachers – including the Deputy Headteacher – with no remembrances of the closed schools. With staff, Cathy says: “It was hard at the beginning not to say things like ‘we used to…’ and we tried as much as possible not to mention the ‘Court’ or ‘Dane’ words.”
Where she did meet some resistance was with the midday supervisors. “At the first meeting they sat in two distinct groups so I asked them all to stand up and when the music stopped to sit next to someone they didn’t previously work with! It had the effect of defusing that first meeting.”
The trouble with parents…!
Cathy found that the people having the hardest time accepting the change were parents who – outside of the school’s BLUE structure (school song, identikit sweatshirts, etc) – retained their strong tribal loyalties.
“The former Court Park parents thought they had ‘won’ because they had kept the school. They didn’t realise that the important thing is not the building but the people and they were upset when things changed – eg: assembly times.”
The Courts tends to be a marginally more affluent sub-area of Orchard Park than the Danes and a number of former Danepark parents found it difficult to go onto unfamiliar territory – as Cathy comments: “The ex-Danepark parents felt intimidated by the admittedly more articulate ex-Court Park parents.” Some of the former Danepark teachers too felt intimidated by the more expressive RED culture among the former Court Park parents – as Cathy recalls: “There was a perception that the ex-Danepark staff didn’t know how to treat ‘bright’ pupils and the ex-Danepark staff were huffy about the assertive parents. I had to convince the staff that concerned parents are a GOOD THING because at least they care. I had to persuade the parents that, of course, the school would cater for the more able but that, at the beginning, the teachers were finding out about the levels the children were at and didn’t want to alarm them by making the work too difficult.”
In this charged atmosphere day-to-day humdrum incidents took on a much greater significance. “I have had to deal with many ‘complaints’ which are really very minor…. Where the teacher is an ex-Court Park one, the ex-Dane parents tend to complain and vice versa. There are fewer complaints about the new teachers.”
Things reached a kind of head in the immediate run-up to the 3 October 2002 ceremonial opening, as Cathy recalls: “I heard rumours that some of the parents were threatening to disrupt our opening ceremonies so we had an open meeting to clear the air. The rule was you could say something negative but then there had to be a positive comment about the school following it.”
Following this near-Jahari Window session, relations with most parents improved significantly, as more peopled realised Cathy’s readiness to honour the traditions of both closed schools.
When, as part of Hull LEA’s OFSTED (Office for Standards in Education) inspection, The Parks was visited by an Inspector on 24 September (with the school open less than 2 weeks), “he said – as have all our visitors – that it doesn’t have the feel of a new school.” Nevertheless, a small hard core of former Court Park parents remained steadfast in opposition to the former Danepark head being in charge of the school on their territory.
Cathy realised just how entrenched some of those parents were when one of them told her: “The trouble is, Mrs Byrne, that you don’t know how things are done around here.” PURPLE, clinging onto its territory, was telling her in no uncertain terms that she was the outsider!
However, as she increasingly gained the confidence of other former Court Park parents, Cathy learned that this opposition was as much about RED power and influence in the local community as it was to do with PURPLE tribalism. Cathy’s management style, based on enabling all rather than positioning a few favourites, was perceived to be eroding the power and influence of these disgruntled parents.
“I just wasn’t afraid”
As the school settled down into regular routines, with staff, children and most parents co-operating in a relatively-harmonious manner, the opposition of this small ‘hardcore’ of parents grew more vociferous throughout the first half of 2003; and more ugly!
To protect her staff from the verbal abuse some of them had been receiving – “I didn’t want them distracted from teaching” – Cathy Byrne made it her business to deal with this group of recalcitrants, being, as she put it, “pleasantly confrontational”.
As the hardcore parents tended to engineer these confrontations in public – usually at home time, to maximise their audience – one or 2 of the school staff would hover somewhere near by “just in case” . Which was understandable since Cathy came in for a welter of verbal abuse and was eventually threatened with violence. “They tried to intimidate me but, you see, I just wasn’t afraid.” (Interestingly Clare W Graves (1978/2005) identified loss of fear as a distinctive characteristic of 2nd Tier thinking.)
However, as the threats became more extreme, Cathy did ask nearby staff to make notes of what they heard in case the school had to resort to legal action.
With outright intimidation not getting the desired results, the hardcore tried more subtle tactics. They raised a small petition of around about 250 signatures demanding Cathy’s resignation on the grounds that she was not doing enough to combat bullying at The Parks.Although she knew the school was successfully implementing government and LEA policy on bullying, Cathy arranged for representatives of the parents to meet with her, her deputy, The Parks Chair of Governors, Simon Gardner (Deputy Director of Hull Learning Services (LEA)) and Sue Young (Hull Learning Services Anti-Bullying) in an attempt to tease out real concerns, As an output of the meeting, Sue Young proposed an anti-bullying task force.
However, those parents who signed up to the task force immediately found themselves labelled ‘turncoats’ by the rest of the hardcore and withdrew from it. The PURPLE/red need to belong to the ‘gang’ had proved just too powerful.
The hardcore then took the petition to the Hull Daily Mail who ran the story, using quite sensationalist terms, in July just before the end of term. However, Simon Gardner, when interviewed for the article, unequivocally voiced his support for the school and Cathy’s leadership; thus, reducing some of its impact.
On the last day of term Cathy had a note delivered to all parents collecting their children. In it she stated: “Please be reassured that your children are our top priority and that their welfare is our major concern. Please also be reassured that there is no question of any member of staff resigning because of a hate campaign by a small group of people. We are working very hard to stop bullying in our school and that includes bullying by adults.”
Effectively a declaration of war, Cathy told me at the time that she had decided to show the hardcore just how “quietly determined” she could be and that she was “going to fight RED with RED!” In fact, Cathy was actually macro-managing vMEMES and BLUE would prove a staunch ally in the days to come.
Breaking cycles of confrontation
More than herself, Cathy was concerned for the school, her staff and the pupils – especially the children of the hardcore oppositionists. Poisoned in their attitudes towards The Parks by their parents, these children were among the worst behavers in the school, disrupting lessons and damaging their own education.
To break the cycles of confrontation, Cathy turned to BLUE. In September 2003 Hull Council’s Anti-Social Behaviour Unit issued letters banning the 3 most confrontational parents from the school site for 6 weeks. (The normal duration of such a ban was 6 months or even a year but Cathy requested the much shorter timespan because she was of the mind to mend relationships, not sever them.) However, in typical RED style, 2 of those parents continued to come onto the site. However, the threat of personal violence enabled Cathy to turn to stronger BLUE: the police were called in. In fact around this time the hardcore were largely undermined – effectively by the other parents!
The Governors of The Parks, who had been consistently supportive of Cathy, had decided at their meeting in early July – prior to the Daily Mail story – that they wanted to know what wider parental opinion was. Accordingly, those attending that month’s parents’ evening were asked to complete an OFSTED-style questionnaire. It was then sent out to anyone who hadn’t attended the parents’ evening.
To minimise any accusations of the survey of being rigged, Cathy made sure she was never in sole possession of the completed questionnaires. 2 parents completely independent of the school management collated the results.
The consistency and fairness displayed by Cathy and her staff, the honouring of old PURPLE identities while forging a new one, and Cathy’s RED/YELLOW personal integrity and courage in standing up for the school she believed in paid off. The survey revealed that 80% of Parks parents ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘tended to agree’ that the school was ‘well led and managed’. A staggering 99+% ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘tended to agree’ that The Parks expected “my child to work hard and achieve his or her best”. On an estate where the conventional ‘work ethic’ was weak, this was an astonishing vote of confidence in The Parks.
With this advantage in hand, the LEA set up a support group for The Parks to take some of the pressure off Cathy and her staff, inviting representatives from the local church, St Michael’s, Hull DOC (Developing Our Communities), and other community groups and agencies.
Additionally, a mediator was volunteered by one of the community groups called in. To the surprise of some, Cathy submitted herself to mediation, received feedback and resolved to learn from it.
At the same time the BEST (Behaviour & Educational Support Team) for the area was inaugurated and their assigned police officer spent time with the most disaffected parents, absorbing some of their aggression and giving a sympathetic ear.
A marker that Autumn term of The Parks’ increasing acceptance by the local communities was increased attendance by parents at the Friday morning assemblies.
December 2003’s Christmas Concert saw the spaces in the school hall allocated to parents filled. At the event one of the hard core oppositionists, who had gone to the Hull Daily Mail back in the July, now told Cathy what a good job she thought she was doing!
Still there were some who couldn’t yet bring themselves to accept. In January another parent from the little group that had gone to the Mail became so threatening and abusive that Cathy had to have the Anti-Social Behaviour Unit ban him from The Parks. As with the 2 of the previous banned parents, this parent’s RED again led him to defy the ban.
Cathy: “He then defied this order and came onto the site to argue the toss with me and was extremely threatening. [He actually threatened violence against both Cathy and her husband!] The City Council legal department were superb and within an hour and a half we were in Court getting a temporary injunction. Then ten days later we were again in Court for the parent to put his side of the case. He floored us all by saying that everything we said about the incidents was correct and that his behaviour was ‘bang out of order’. It may have been that he was trying to get the injunction lifted. Nevertheless the judge upheld the order banning him from the site until the end of the summer holidays. Not long afterwards he removed his children from the school.” On the face of it, a case of RED collapsing and admitting its shame when confronted with its waywardness by BLUE. Whatever the parent’s motives and whether the admission was genuine or not, there could hardly have been a greater vindication than the parent recanting in a court of law where the admission of wrongdoing is enshrined in BLUE!
Developing staff, nurturing children
To date 2 of the 3 of the local ward councillors have toured The Parks and pronounced themselves happy with what they found.
BLUE’s real test, though, was an OFSTED inspection in July 2004. While the inspectors were not without some criticisms, they declared The Parks to be “an improving school, whose effectiveness is currently satisfactory. There is a clear commitment and determination to raise standards.”
Considering all the difficulties with the hardcore and the fact that Court Park had been in ‘Serious Weaknesses’ at the time of the merger, the OFSTED rating of ‘satisfactory’ was no small achievement.
What must have been particularly pleasing for Cathy, given the tactics of the hardcore, was the inspectors’ citing ‘Leadership and Management of the head teacher and key staff’ as one of the school’s strengths.
During the inspection, the remnants of the hardcore did make their presence felt and the inspectors noted “the hostile response of some parents” and “the harassment by some parents”. Yet the inspectors also cited ‘Links with the Community’ as a strength of the school. “It’s still early days,” Cathy says cautiously, regarding this acceptance; but it is clear The Parks, in a very short space of time, has become accepted by all but a very tiny handful.
However, this acceptance has been won by far more than just confronting those who would not accept.
Rather it is Cathy’s holistic approach to the needs of her school, its staff and its pupils which has won local confidence in her as a shamaness who really does have a touch of magic about her!
When one of The Parks’ cooks expressed an interest in developing office skills to better herself, in line with her principle of enabling people, Cathy employed her in school administration.
Even more Cathy looks to enable The Parks children. She is keen on merit stickers, certificates and heaps of verbal praise for good behaviour, high attendance and good work as a way of building up the children’s RED self-esteem. She encourages them continually to grasp opportunities. At The Parks’ first anniversary assembly, Cathy spoke to the Year 6’s about where they would be in another year’s time (just entered secondary school) and then about where they would be in ten years’ time- future pacing the youngsters to think about what opportunities they might grasp. “I also took them forward twenty and thirty years and told them I would be retired but in the phone book; and they could phone me and tell me about their personal and professional lives and their successes.
“I created opportunities for my own children,” she explains. “They don’t always do that here – there isn’t the same ethic. So you have to enable the children to recognise opportunities when they arise – and to grasp them.”
As part of her nurturing of her charges, Cathy has encouraged sensible attitudes towards getting enough sleep and eating healthily. On an estate where malnutrition is significant and there is something of a ‘junk food mentality’, some of the school’s exhortations have proved a little controversial. (“I was accused by several parents of ‘forcing’ their children to eat vegetables!”)
Given Spiral Dynamics co-developer Don Beck’s expressions of concerns in recent years (2000a; 2002b) about malnutrition affecting the brain’s ability to develop vMEMES healthily – the Upper Right’s ability in 4Q/8L to facilitate growth in the Upper Left – the criticality of healthy eating to learning is clear. (Many primary school teachers tell children a good diet is ‘brain food’!) In any case, Cathy is unrepentant…and her stock now seems high enough with most parents for her to carry it off.
One of the key developments in Cathy Byrne’s own thinking in recent years on the education and development of children is that interventions need to be earlier in life rather than later. Thus, she is critical of the Government’s new Behaviour Improvement Project. “It shouldn’t be targeted at Secondary School Year 7. It is very clearly ‘early intervention’ but many people seem to think ‘early intervention’ means Year 7. They seem to justify that because that’s when the problems are really evident. But by then it’s too late. Behaviour patterns are largely established and very difficult to change.”
Cathy would have assessments conducted and interventions designed as early as entrance to primary school. “Not all indicators are always clear at that stage and we could end up bringing in support for somebody who turned out not to need it. But, by and large, we can tell you at that stage who is on track to go on to a worthwhile career and who, if nobody does anything to change it, is going to end up detained at Her Majesty’s Pleasure.”
One could see, following Cathy’s argument, how ‘early years’ psychological assessments like Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation could indicate the current health of PURPLE – the bedrock of the Spiral.
Taking a global view, Cathy says: “We have gone almost as far as we can in improving teaching so the way forward is in improving LEARNING . I have long thought that there are far too few (teachers) doing far too much and far too many (pupils and parents) doing far too little. We need to redress that balance. The idea is not to do the parenting ourselves but to support and encourage parents in their task. We still have a great many issues to face such as low achievement, behaviour and attendance. Whereas we have direct control over the quality of teaching and other factors IN school, there are many barriers to our children’s learning over which we have no real control such as attendance, punctuality, nutrition, sufficient sleep, good behaviour, positive attitudes to school, homework, parental support. We MUST try to crack some of these if we are to make the difference our children need.”
A recent – and major! – innovation in attendance strategy at The Parks has been to text or phone the mobiles of parents of truants and children with poor punctuality records early in the morning as a kind of alarm call.
Macro-managing the Spiral
In terms of The Parks Cathy Byrne’s remarkable achievement has been to create through multi-vMEME management a new PURPLE, which initially the children and increasingly the wider communities are identifying with. A key element of this has been the honouring of the old separate PURPLE traditions.
Cathy has fed and fed PURPLE, while at the same time demonstrating a robust RED resolve and sprinkling teasers to stimulate emergent higher vMEMES.
Looking back on the development of The Parks, Cathy says The Parks has “much more the feel of a ‘normal’ school now. We can no longer make the excuse we are new!
“It is an interesting thing – in a ‘middle class’ school the parents trust the school to do their best by the child until there is proof that that the school is not trustworthy. In our school we have to earn the trust of the parents. From past experience I can say that, once that trust is gained, you become the best thing since sliced bread and they defend you from any outside threats, but it takes a lot of doing.”
NB: In July 2004 Cathy Byrne was awarded her Master’s Decree in Science (MSc) from Leeds Metropolitan University. Her dissertation was the case study of the merger of Danepark and Court Park to form The Parks. Cathy acknowledged a number of educationalists and philosophers who had influenced her thinking but the core of her strategy, as outlined in the text, was based on the Gravesian approach. She referenced both ‘Spiral Dynamics: mastering Values, Leadership & Change’ by Don Beck & Chris Cowan (Blackwell, 1996) and ‘Levels of Existence’, Bill Lee’s transcript of a Clare W Graves 1971 seminar (ECLET Publishing, 2002).
The Parks Primary School can be contacted at:-
Orchard Park Estate
Kingston Upon Hull HU8 9TA
Tel: (+44) (0)1482 854616
Fax: (+44) (0)1482 801017