Categories

Keith E Rice's Integrated SocioPsychology Blog & Pages

Aligning, integrating and applying the behavioural sciences

‘Epigenetics’

Biological Factors in Crime

Updated: 7 December 2016 Are criminals born or ‘made’? This is a question which has vexed philosophers for millennia and psychologists and sociologists since the dawn of the behavioural sciences early in the 19th Century. The deterministic view offered by biological explanations for criminality – ie: you have no real choice, it’s in your biological make-up – have major implications for how society treats criminals – especially violent ones.  Biological theories assert criminal behaviour has a physiological origin, with the implication that the ‘criminal’, therefore, has difficulty not committing crime because it is ‘natural’ –  ie: the ‘born criminal’ concept. Biological determinism can be used to undermine the legal concept of criminal responsibility: criminals are held to be personally and morally accountable for their actions. Only when the Law of Diminished Responsibility is applied in cases of self-defence and mental illness – and in some countries (eg: France) ‘crimes of passion’ (temporary insanity) – is the defendant assumed not to have acted from their own free will. 3 cases illustrate how biological arguments have been used as mitigating factors to reduce the level of criminal responsibility:- In 1994 Stephen Mobley was sentenced to death for shooting dead the manager of an American branch of Domino’s Pizza. He was also found… Read More

Epigenetics

Updated: 4 July 2018 Epigenetics is an approach that helps to explain how nurture shapes nature to produce the phenotype from the genotype – in other words, how you become who you are from your genetic potential. In the words of Mark Solms & Oliver Turnbull (2002, p11): “…the fine organisation of the brain is literally sculpted by the environment in which it finds itself – far more so than any other organ in the body, and over much longer periods of time.” Whilst in no way undermining the importance of Genetics, it does undermine genetic determinism because it allows that virtually everything in the life span of an individual – from diet and nutrition, to ingestion of toxins, to social experiences, etc, etc – can influence the expression of genes to produce differences in motivation, temperament, cognition, behaviour and mental health. Bruce Lipton (2008) has put forward evidence to claim that emotions and even unconscious beliefs can bring about epigenetic modification. Conrad Waddington is credited with first using the term ‘epigenetics’ in Biology in 1946. ‘Epi’ is a Greek term meaning upon or above. Thus, epigenetics reflects the effects that take place upon, above or in addition to genetics.This original… Read More

Dimensions of Temperament

Updated: 4 February 2016 Looking at the 4 personality types depicted in the graphic above, which most accurately describes you? By ‘you’, we mean the natural you, the you you don’t have to work at, the you which feels most comfortable to you when there are no pressures to be anyone else. We’re talking about the you you were born with: your natural temperamental type. Of course, very, very few people remain totally true to that type in all circumstances – especially when their vMEMES motivate them to do things beyond their temperamental type. (For example, as someone slightly on the Melancholic side, when leading a workshop event, I find my ORANGE’s achievement orientation will lead me to perform in an outgoing, even charismatic way that contains little hint of my natural mild Introversion.) How much you are any one type will depend on where you tend to locate naturally on each of the 2 Dimensions of Neuroticism and Extraversion. A number of studies have supported Hans J Eysenck’s (1967) contention that our default position on these Dimensions is birthed in us. One such was James Shields (1976) finding that monozygotic (MZ) twins were significantly more similar in Extraversion and Neuroticism  than were… Read More

Reciprocal Determinism

Updated: 2 May 2016 The model of Reciprocal Determinism was developed by Albert Bandura (1977). It considers how what we do and who we spend time with – our Behaviour – impacts upon and changes the life conditions in the Environment we experience and how we respond cognitively and emotionally – and possibly physiologically too – as a Person to the environmental feedback we then receive. Unlike the determinism of straight-forward Behaviourism, Bandura posits that we can influence the Environment as well as the Environment influencing us. Bandura (1999) terms the actor acting upon their environment personal agency. If the environmental feedback is favourable, then that will have a reinforcing effect likely to lead to repetition of the behaviour. If the environmental feedback is unfavourable, then that may lead to changes in beliefs and attitudes and consequently behaviour, depending on just what sense we make of the feedback. The sense we make will clearly depend on what meta-programmes are being run by what vMEMES and what schemas are challenged. Bandura was the leading Social Learning theoretician of the mid-late 20th Century. While the concept of the Environment determining Behaviour is rooted in Behaviourism, Social Learning Theory built on Edward C Tolman’s (1932) position of there… Read More

Personal Therapy

Updated: 24 July 2019 PLEASE NOTE: I WILL NOT BE TAKING ANY NEW CLIENTS AFTER 1 SEPTEMBER 2019 WITH A VIEW TO TERMINATING PROVISION OF THIS SERVICE COMPLETELY BY 31 MARCH 2020   “The only person holding you back is you!” – Jack Holt, Stelram Engineering Ltd DEPRESSED? ~ LOW SELF-ESTEEM? ~ RELATIONSHIP PROBLEMS? Are YOU happy with what You believe about Yourself? Can Personal Therapy help You to lead a more fulfilling life? Negative thoughts!! Do you sometimes find yourself thinking thoughts such as.… I’m not worthy Nobody likes me I can’t do that I’m bad I can’t make it work People find me boring I’m disgusting I’m useless I’m so shy I can’t cope with meeting people I can’t stop myself from doing that… Members of the opposite sex don’t find me attractive It’s amazing how many sophisticated and intelligent people suffer from such unhealthy, unwholesome and unhelpful thoughts. These are what in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) we call ‘limiting beliefs’ and in Cognitive Psychology ‘maladaptive schemas’. They lower our self-esteem and reduce our self-efficacy (Albert Bandura’s 1977 term for our belief in our ability to acquire and use learning and resources for our benefit). Limiting beliefs stop us doing… Read More

Training

Updated: 14 October 2015 “It is certainly a course everyone should do who is involved with young people and their future prospects. BRILLIANT!” – Angela Ogilvie,  Head of Year 9, St Mary’s College, Hull, 2001 What began in February 2001 as An Introduction to Spiral Dynamics & Related Models of Neuro-Linguistic Programming has grown into a range of courses dealing with the theory and applications of Integrated SocioPsychology. (See Courses for details on upcoming open workshops.) The behavioural sciences are concerned with explaining why people behave and think as they do. Unfortunately the behavioural sciences are fractured by both inter-discipline and inter-school differences – which have often escalated into long-running disputes. Additionally there is a reluctance in many university Psychology and Sociology departments to recognise approaches such as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) which are on the fringe of ‘academia’. (Even though they are often grounded in extensive investigative studies and are supported by much thought and research in the universities themselves!) Integrated SocioPsychology draws upon the Gravesian approach, NLP models such as Neurological Levels and Meta-States, so-called academic or ‘conventional’ Psychology models such as Dimensions of Temperament and Reciprocal Determinism, and much thought in the sociological schools of Symbolic Interactionism and Functionalism – all… Read More

vMEMES

Updated: 09/06/18 PURPLE (B-O) thinking works on emotion, security, rituals, tokens, sense of belonging (my family, my friends, my workplace) and is very responsive to peer and family pressures RED (C-P) thinking is assertive (aggressive!), energetic, powerful, indulgent, self-centred and wants to dominate/be the best BLUE (D-Q) thinking is concerned with procedures, routines, order, quality, the correct way of doing things, is highly responsive to the ‘correct’ higher authority and punishes ‘sinners’ ORANGE (E-R) thinking is strategic and future-focussed, wants to achieve and improve, loves technology and innovation, and marks progress – eg: with status and wealth GREEN (F-S) thinking values people – all are equal and to be treated correctly, with decisions made by consensus In which of these ways do you think – at what times and in what contexts/circumstances? These vMEMES or modes of thinking form the second (PURPLE) through to the sixth (GREEN) ‘levels of existence’ in the Gravesian approach, arguably the most advanced map of human needs and motivations developed to date. vMEMES can be thought of as ‘value systems’, ‘core intelligences’ or even ‘mini-selves’. They each have their own way of thinking, sets of needs and motivations, and contextual strengths and weaknesses. The colours applied… Read More

Integrated SocioPsychology

Updated: 3 February 2016 ‘Integrated SocioPsychology’ is the term I have coined for developing a highly-practical and integrated approach to the behavioural sciences… Integrated – the aim is to learn how all the elements of the behavioural sciences and the complementary ‘hard’ sciences’ of Biology and Neuroscience fit together to explain… Psychology – how and why people think and behave as they do in different contexts in different times… Socio – taking into account group dynamics and the influence of culture and the society people live in as those cultures and societies morph and change This page provides a basic overview of the Integrated approach and how the key models link together. More specific detail on the individual models is available on their linked pages. Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology are fractured fields of study, with several different (and often competing!) schools of thought and even areas of exploration. The history of the behavioural sciences is littered with disputes both between those competing schools (which are accepted academically) and also between academia and ‘fringe’ or ‘alternative’ approaches such as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). The structure of an Integrated approach Integration is made possible by building the structure of SocioPsychology around the frame of the… Read More

Schemas & Memes

Updated: 15 May 2017 Love is a meme. The Beatles made great music is a meme. Smart clothes is a meme. Smart is a meme. Clothes is a meme. Depression, as a description of a weather system, is a meme. Weather system is a meme. Weather is a meme. System is a meme. Depression, as a description of a mental state, is a meme. Mental is a meme. State is a meme. Schema is a meme. Meme is a meme. And, if you take this in and believe it, then meme is one of your schemas! (The plural of schema is sometimes referenced as schemata.) Schemas and memes are arguably two reflectors of the same concept – ideas! (from the instinctive and unspoken structural to the metaphysical abstract) – in different contexts. The theories around both terms emphasise the enormous impact of ideas upon the human psyche. A schema can be defined as any cognitive construct or encoded packet of information in the mind-brain. A meme is a unit of cultural information, such as a cultural practice or idea, that is contained in a medium of communication – eg: a book – or is transmitted verbally or by repeated action (behaviour) from one… Read More

Theory

‘Integrated SocioPsychology’ is the name I have coined for the meta-approach I am developing – along with several other key thinkers – to integrate and align the many theories and schools/disciplines in the behavioural sciences. The overarching framework of this construct is 4Q/8L and the vMEMES of the Gravesian approach. Together they form undoubtedly the most advanced mapping of the ebb and flow of human motivational systems, both at an individual and a collective/cultural level. How vMEMES influence the identities and values & beliefs we hold in our selfplex and how they play out in our interaction with the external environment can be monitored via Robert Dilts’ Neurological Levels model. With the aid of Reciprocal Determinism we can see how memes – external ideas – are internalised into our own internal schemas via the meta-stating process, each stage of which involves one and often more elements of the Cognitive Triad and the attribution process. Temperament – as best defined via Hans J Eysenck’s Dimensions – frequently influences an individual’s behaviour and the interrelationship between temperament and motivation is a key area for exploration in my thoughts on Integrated SocioPsychology. Certainly it would seem some meta-programmes will fluctuate more as motivational patterns… Read More